Copyediting takes place once the writing is complete and the content is well structured. It involves a thorough check for correctness, consistency, completeness, and accuracy, which may include:

  • correcting errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, and usage
  • editing for consistency of mechanics, facts, style, and formatting
  • editing lists, tables, figures, headings, or bibliographies
  • reducing or eliminating jargon
  • improving clarity
  • querying unclear or possibly incorrect content
  • checking in-text and bibliographic citations
  • ensuring compliance with a style guide
  • for peer-reviewed articles: ensuring the paper is formatted to a specific journal’s style convention

Structural or Substantive Editing

The purpose of structural editing (aka substantive editing) is to improve the content, organization, and flow of a draft. It may include:

  • reordering, revising, or removing content
  • writing content
  • making suggestions for additional or alternative content


Depending on the subject, I offer writing services for a variety of document types, including:

  • literature reviews
  • government fact sheets
  • journal articles
  • website copy
  • and more

My writing specialty is science-related content for academic and general audiences, and my areas of expertise include agriculture, entomology, animal behaviour, general biology, genetics, evolution, and ecology. Contact me to see if your writing project aligns with my expertise and interests.

Thesis Help

Writing a graduate thesis can be overwhelming. I know because I’ve written two theses and edited many others. I’ve also provided one-on-one and group guidance and training on thesis writing. Because of these experiences, I’m very familiar with the questions and pitfalls graduate students encounter while writing. If you’re struggling with your thesis, I can help. After a one-on-one consultation session, I will offer personalized solutions and tips to help get your writing on track. Depending on your situation, we may discuss how to:

  • decide on content
  • organize content
  • find time to write
  • manage stress and expectations
  • deal with edits from your committee

Angela is an amazing editor! She sent her feedback incredibly quickly and gave very clear and detailed notes on how to fix grammatical issues, improve the overall structure of my paper, and strengthen certain phrases. If you have any piece of writing—whether you think you need a second pair of eyes on it or not—you can’t go wrong with hiring Angela as your editor. Alex, graduate student