I offer two types of editing services:


Copyediting takes place once the writing is complete and the content is well structured. It involves a thorough check for correctness, consistency, completeness, and accuracy, which may include:

  • correcting errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, and usage
  • editing for consistency of mechanics, facts, style, and formatting
  • editing lists, tables, figures, headings, or bibliographies
  • reducing or eliminating jargon
  • improving clarity
  • flagging unclear or possibly incorrect content
  • checking in-text and bibliographic citations
  • ensuring compliance with a style guide
  • for peer-reviewed articles: ensuring the paper is formatted to a journal’s style conventions

Structural or Substantive Editing

The purpose of structural editing (aka substantive editing) is to improve the content, organization, and flow of a draft. It may include:

  • reordering, revising, or removing content
  • writing content
  • making suggestions for additional or alternative content